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Materials About Race and Racism in the U.S.

Resources which address racial identity development and whiteness and white privilege are listed separately (below this more general listing) for your convenience.

Bell, Derrick. 1992. Faces at the Bottom of the Well: The Permanence of Racism. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Berry, Mary Frances. 1994. Black Resistance/White Law: A History of Constitutional Racism in America. New York, NY: Allen Lane.

Bowser, Benjamin P., Ed. 1995. Racism and Anti-Racism in World Perspective; Sage Series on Race and Ethnic Relations, vol. 13. London, England: Sage Publications.

Cause For Concern: Hate Crimes in America
The first major comprehensive assessment of the hate crime problem in the United States, Cause for Concern discusses what is being done to promote respect for diversity and to combat crimes based on bias. The document includes ten recommendations for additional action by every sector of society.

Changing America: Indicators of Social and Economic Well-Being by Race and Hispanic Origin. 1998. Washington, DC: The Council of Economic Advisors for President Clinton?’s Initiative on Race. Click here for the archives of the One America initiative.

Chideya, Farai. 1999. The Color of Our Future: Our Multiracial Future. William Morrow and Company.

CommonQuest magazine. Billed as the magazine of black/Jewish relations, CommonQuest is a joint venture sponsored by the American Jewish Committee and Howard University to explore racial tensions. Co-editors Jonathan Rieder of Barnard College and Russell Adams of Howard launched the publication, backed by a start-up grant from the Harry & Jeanette Weinberg Foundation. The magazine claims it fills a unique niche, being situated at the intersection of the literary, journalistic and scholarly worlds. Published in February, May, and October, subscriptions are approximately $14 per year. Call 202-806-6705 for subscriptions.

Dalton, Harlon L.. 1996. Racial Healing: Confronting the Fear Between Blacks and Whites. Anchor Books.

Davidson, Osha Gray. 1996. The Best of Enemies: Race and Redemption in the New South. New York, NY: Scribner.

Dyson, Michael Eric. 1993. Reflecting Black: African-American Cultural Criticism. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Ezekiel, Raphael S. 1996. The Racist Mind: Portraits of American Neo-Nazis and Klansmen. Penguin USA.

Fine, Michelle, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell and L. Mun Wong, Eds. 1997. Off White: Readings on Race, Power and Society. New York: Routledge.

Forging a New Future: The Advisory Board?’s Report to the President. 1998. Washington, DC: One America In the 20th Century/The President?’s Initiative on Race.

Garrod, Andrew, Janie Victoria Ward, Tracy L, Robinson, Robert Kilkenny, Eds. 1999. Souls Looking Back: Life Stories of Growing Up Black. Routledge. Recognizing an absence of African American voices in adolescent psychology, the editors of this book collected autobiographical essays on childhood memories of adolescents of African descent. This five-year project resulted in sixteen personal narratives from black and biracial college students. Each chapter--on social class and race, identity, and resilience and resistance--begins with an overview of the issue written by an African American scholar, followed by four to six personal narratives.

Goldfield, Michael. 1995. The Color of Politics: Race and Mainsprings of American Politics. New York, NY: The New York Press.

Goode, Judith and Jo Anne Schneider. 1994. Reshaping Ethnic and Racial Relations in Philadelphia: Immigrants in a Divided City. Temple University Press.

Gudykunst, William B. 1991. Bridging Differences: Effective Intergroup Communication. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Gutmann, Amy and Anthony Appiah. 1998. Color Conscious: The Political Morality of Race. Princeton University Press.

Hartman, Chester, ed. and Bill Bradley. 1996. Double Exposure: Poverty and Race in America. M.E. Sharp.

Hate Crimes: ADL Blueprint for Action. 1997. Anti-Defamation League. This booklet is a compilation of ADL initiatives that can be instituted in a variety of settings. It features information on college and university-based anti-bias initiatives and a section specifically on responding to bias incidents in college dormitories.

Helfand, Judy and Laurie B. Lippin, Ph.D. Understanding Whiteness/Unraveling Racism: Tools for the Journey. 2001. Thomson Learning Custom Publishing.
This book makes whiteness and white privilege visible, revealing the cultural and institutional structures that keep white dominance in place. Both a workbook and reader, it provides tools for examining what it is to be white in the U.S., addressing fear and guilt as barriers to dismantling racism and identifying the small daily acts and larger organized movements that further the struggle for social justice and equality.

hooks, bell. 1992. Race and Representation. Boston, MA: South End Press.

Humphreys, Debra. Campus Diversity and Student Self-Segregation: Separating Myths from Facts. AAC&U. Click here for the article.

Ignatiev, N., & Garvey, J. (Eds.). 1996. Race Traitor. New York: Routledge.

Kivel, Paul. 1996. Uprooting Racism: How White People Can Work for Racial Justice. Montpelier, VT: New Society Publishers.

Kochman, Thomas. 1981. Black and White Styles in Conflict. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.

Kozol, Jonathan. 1991. Savage Inequalities: Children in America?’s Schools. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc.

Lazarus, Edward. 1991. Black Hills/White Justice: The Sioux Nation Versus the United States (1775 to the Present). New York, NY: Harper Collins.

Lerner, Michael and Cornel West. 1995. Jews and Blacks: Let the Healing Begin. New York, NY: G.P. Putnam?’s Sons.

Lifton, Robert Jay, ed. 1996. Hiroshima in America: A Half Century of Denial. Avon Books.

Loewen, James. 1995. Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything your American History Textbook Got Wrong. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Loury, Glenn. 1995. One by One from the Inside Out: Essays and Reviews on Race and Responsibility in America. Free Press.

Massey, Douglas. 1993. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Harvard University Press.

Moore, Carlos, Shawna Moore, Tanya R. Saunders, eds. 1995. African Presence in the Americas. African World Press, Inc.

O'Brien, Eileen. 2001. Whites Confront Racism: Antiracists and Their Paths to Action. Rowman & Littlefield. Examines the distinctive place that whites can take in the fight for racial justice, bringing together interviews with white anti-racist activists from across North America. Avoiding the typical white options of being "non-racist" or feeling guilty, these whites demonstrate the multitude of ways whites can be proactive in combating modern racism.

Orfield, Gary. 1997. Dismantling Desegregation: The Quiet Reversal of Brown v. Board of Education. The New Press, W.W. Norton.

Piatt, Bill. 1997. Black and Brown in America: The Case for Cooperation. New York University Press.

Race ? is a web portal intended to encourage and provide inspiration and tools for racial reconciliation. It has information about racial matters throughout America and the world, both historical and current. Their main goal is to provide information about people and organizations whose efforts are helping to achieve racial reconciliation in Palm Beach County, Florida and to serve as a resource for them.

Root, Maria, ed. 1995. The Multiracial Experience: Racial Borders as the New Frontier. Sage Publications.

Rose, Peter I. 1997. They and We: Racial and Ethnic Relations in the United States, Fifth Edition. New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Roy, Beth. 1999. Bitters in the Honey: Tales of Hope and Disappointment Across Divides of Race and Time. University of Arkansas Press. Roy interviews whites and blacks who were present during the school integration crisis in Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1957.

Seldon, Horace. 1989. "Convictions About Racism in the United States of America." Community Change, Inc.

Shipler, David K. 1998. A Country of Strangers: Blacks and Whites in America. New York, NY: Vintage Books.

Smith, Tom W. 2000. Taking America's Pulse II: NCCJ's 2000 Survey of Intergroup Relations in the United States. New York: National Conference for Community and Justice. This report summarizes the results of NCCJ's 2000 survey, which examined over 2500 Americans' attitudes toward various social identity groups. Email or call 212-545-1300.

Stalvey, L.M. 1988. The Education of a WASP. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Takaki, Ronald. 1993. A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. Little, Brown and Company.

Tatum, Beverly Daniel. 1994. Teaching White Students about Racism: The Search for White Allies and the Restoration of Hope. Teachers College Record, 95 (4), 462-476.

Teixeira, Ruy A. 1987. Why Americans Don?’t Vote. Greenwood Publishing Group.

Thompson, Lowell. 1996. White Folks: Seeing America Through Black Eyes. Self-published.

Tutu, Desmond. 1999. No Future Without Forgiveness. New York, NY: Doubleday.

van Dijk, Teun A. 1987. Communicating Racism: Ethnic Prejudice in Thought and Talk. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Weiner, Eugene, ed. 1998. The Handbook of Interethnic Coexistence. New York, NY: The Continuum Publishing Company.

Wicker, Tom. 1996. Tragic Failure: Racial Integration in America. William Morrow and Company.

Wilkins, Roger. 2001. Jefferson's Pillow: The Founding Fathers and the Dilemma of Black Patriotism.
Wilkins reflects as a patriotic American on the fact that four of our country's founders who he greatly admires (Washington, Jefferson, Madison and Mason) were all slaveholders and examines what that says about the U.S. Wilkins is thoughtful, compassionate, provocative and, at the same time, very balanced when he writes about race relations. A great book on race in America.

Williams, Eric. 1994. Capitalism & Slavery. Perigee Press.

Williams, Patricia. 1992. The Alchemy of Race and Rights. Harvard University Press.

Wilson, Midge and Kathy Russell. 1996. Divided Sisters: Bridging the Gap Between Black Women and White Women. New York, NY: Anchor Books.

Wong, William. 2001. Yellow Journalist: Dispatches from Asian America. Temple University Press.
The book is a powerful collection of essays and stories that chronicle the Asian American experience with humor, pungent wit and astute perception. Yellow Journalist takes you on a kaleidoscopic journey - from Angel Island to affirmative action, history to Hollywood, immigration to identity, Connie Chung to Tiger Woods. The paperback version of the book can be ordered from for $16.06. Learn more at the Yellow Journalist website.

Racial Identity Development

Alba, R. D. 1990. Ethnic identity: The Transformation of White America. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Bernal, M. E., & Knight, G. P., Eds. 1993. Ethnic identity: Formation and Transmission among Hispanics and other Minorities. Albany, NY: SUNY.

Branch, C. 1999. Racial identity and human development. In R. H. Sheets & E. R. Hollins (Eds.), Racial and ethnic identity in school practices: Aspects of human development (pp. 7-28). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Carter, R. T. 1995. The Influence of Race and Racial Identity in Psychotherapy: Toward a racially inclusive model. New York: John Wiley.

Gaskins, Pearl Fuyo, Ed. 1999. What Are You?: Voices of Mixed Race Young People. Henry Holt & Company, Inc. In essay, interview, and poetry, 45 mixed-race young people between the ages of 14 and 26, from all over the U.S., speak about their growing up. Whether black and white, white and Asian, Hispanic and black, Jewish and black, or whatever, each one is intensely personal; yet each one speaks to universals of coming-of-age as an outsider who doesn't fit into accepted categories.

Goodman, Diane J. 2000. Promoting Diversity and Social Justice. Sage Publications. State University of New York, New Paltz.

Hackney, Sheldon. 1998. One America Indivisible: A National Conversation on American Pluralism and Identity. National Endowment for the Humanities.

Hardiman, Rita and Bailey W. Jackson. 1992. "Racial Identity Development: Understanding Racial Dynamics in College Classrooms and on Campus." In Promoting Diversity in College Classrooms: Innovative Responses for the Curriculum, Faculty, and Institutions.

Hardiman, Rita. 1994. White Racial Identity Development. In E.P. Sallett & D.R. Kaslow (Eds.) Race, Ethnicity and Self: Identity in Multicultural Perspective (pp. 117-140). Washington, DC: National Multicultural Institute.

Helms, J. E. 1990. Black and White Racial Identity: Theory, Research and Practice. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Helms, J.E. 1995. An Update of Helm's White and People of Color Racial Identity Models. In Multicultural Counseling, pp. 181-198. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Lawrence, Sandra M. and Tatum, Beverly Daniel. 1999. White Racial Identity and Anti-Racist Education: A Catalyst for Change. In E. Lee, D. Menkart and M. Okazawa-Rey (Eds) Beyond Heroes and Holidays: A Practical Guide to K-12 Anti-Racist, Multicultural Education and Staff Development, pp. 45-51. Washington, DC: Network of Educators on the Americas. Available from NECA, PO Box 73038, Washington, DC 20056-3038; email: .
This article stems from the belief that anti-racist pedagogy based on the principles of racial identity development can bring about changes in teachers' fundamental beliefs about race and racism. Includes the results of their efforts to assess the impact of multicultural and anti-racist courses.

Lawrence, Sandra M. 1998. Researching, Writing and Racial Identity: Cross-Disciplinary Connections for Multicultural Education. The Teacher Educator, 34(1), pp. 41-53.

Lawrence, Sandra M. 1997 Beyond Race Awareness: White Racial Identity and Multicultural Teaching. The Journal of Teacher Education, 48(2), pp.108-117.

Richardson, T. Q., & Silvestri, T. J. 1999. White identity Formation: A Developmental Process. In R. H. Sheets & E. R. Hollins (Eds.), Racial and Ethnic Identity in School Practices: Aspects of Human Development (pp. 49-66). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Root, M. P. P. 1999. The Biracial Baby Boom: Challenging Constructions of Racial Identity in the Twenty-First Century. In R. H. Sheets & E. R. Hollins (Eds.), Racial, Ethnic, and Cultural Identity and Human Development: Implications for Schooling (pp. 67-90). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Smith, Elsie J. 1991. "Ethnic Identity Development: Toward the Development of a Theory Within the Context of Majority/Minority Status." Journal of Counseling and Development, 70(5), 181-188.

Tatum, Beverly Daniel. 1993. Racial Identity Development and Relational Theory: The Case of Black Women in White Communities. Work in Progress #63. Wellesley, MA: Stone Center Working Paper Series.

Tatum, Beverly Daniel. 1992. African-American Identity Development, Academic Achievement and Missing History. Social Education, 56, (6), 331-334.

Tatum, Beverly Daniel. 1992. Talking About Race, Learning About Racism: The Implication of Racial Identity Development Theory in the Classroom. Harvard Educational Review, 62(1), 1-24.

Whiteness and White Privilege

Allen, Theodore W. 1994. The Invention of the White Race. Vol. 1: Racial Oppression and Social Control. New York, NY: Verson.

Allen, Theodore W. 1997. The Invention of the White Race. Vol. 2: The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America. London, England: W.W. Norton & Co.

Berger, Maurice. 1999. White Lies: Race and the Myths of Whiteness. Farrar Straus & Giroux.

Brodkin, K. 1998. How Jews Became White folks and What that Says About Race in America. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Delgado R., & Stefancic, J., Eds. 1997. Critical White Studies: Looking Behind the Mirror. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Frankenberg, Ruth. 1993. White Women, Race Matters: The Social Construction of Whiteness. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Hitchcock, Jeff. 1995. When We Talk Among Ourselves: White-on-White Focus Groups Discuss Race Relations.
Click here to examine this extensive 1995 report written by the director of the Center for the Study of White American Culture.

Horsman, Reginald. 1986. Race & Manifest Destiny: Origins of American Racial Anglo-Saxonism. Harvard University Press.

Ignatiev, N. 1995. How the Irish Became White. New York: Routledge.

Kincheloe, J. L., Steinberg, S. R., Rodriguez, N. M., & Chennault, R. E. (Eds.). 1998. White Reign: Deploying Whiteness in America. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Lawrence, Sandra M. 1998. Unveiling Positions of Privilege: A Hands-On Approach to Understanding Racism. Teaching of Psychology, 25(3), pp. 198-200.

Lawrence, Sandra M. & Bunche, T. 1996. Feeling and Dealing: Teaching White Students about Racial Privilege. Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, 12(5), pp.531-542.

Lazarre, Jane. 1997. Beyond the Whiteness of Whiteness: Memoir of a White Mother of Black Sons. Duke University Press.
A heartfelt exploration of ethnicity and its implications in America. Lazarre spent twenty-five years living in a Black American family, married to an African-American man, birthing and raising two sons. One of her sons tells her "I am Black. I have a white mother but I am not 'biracial.' That term is meaningless to me." Her book is a memoir of coming to terms with this painful truth, of learning to look into the nature of whiteness in a way that passionately informs the connections between herself and her family.

Lipsitz, G. 1998. The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: How White People Profit from Identity Politics. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Mahoney, M. R. 1997. What Should White Women Do? In R. Delgado & J. Stefancic (Eds.), Critical White studies: Looking Behind the Mirror (pp. 642-643). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Martinez, G. A. 1997. Mexican-Americans and Whiteness. In R. Delgado & J. Stefancic (Eds.), Critical White studies: Looking behind the mirror (pp. 210-213). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

McIntosh, Peggy. 1995. "White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences Through Work in Women?’s Studies." Margaret Anderson and Patricia Hill Collins, Eds. Race, Class and Gender: An Anthology, 2nd edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

McIntosh, Peggy. "White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack," Peace and Freedom. July/August 1989, 10-12.

McIntyre, A. 1997. Making Meaning of Whiteness: Exploring the Racial Identity of White Teachers. Albany, NY: SUNY.

Rodriguez, R. 1999. The Study of Whiteness. Black Issues in Higher Education, 16(6), 20-25.

Roediger, D. R. 1991. The Wages of Whiteness. Race and the Making of the American Working Class. London: Verso.

Thandeka. The Cost of Whiteness. In Tikkun, a Bimonthly Jewish Critique of Politics, Culture & Society, Vol. 14, No. 3 (May/June 1999). Click here for article.
Excellent article begins: "Most white Americans believe they were born white. Yet their own stories of early racial experiences describe persons who were bred white. Which is it--nature or nurture? Neither. The social process that creates whites produces persons who must think of their whiteness as a biological fact."

The Dialogue to Action Initiative and are ?2001 by Sandy Heierbacher and Andy Fluke. ?
Last updated Wednesday, May 8, 2002 8:55 AM ?