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"I'm Calling My Lawyer": How Litigation, Due Process and Other Regulatory Requirements Are Affecting Public Education

Jean Johnson and Ann Duffett. Prepared for Common Good, 2005.

In this pilot study, many teachers and school administrators reported that the possibility of being sued or accused of abuse is ever present in their minds. Avoiding suits and fulfilling due process requirements is a time-consuming part of a principal or superintendent's job and many feel the requirements give unreasonable people a chance to get their way. Yet many educators say protecting children from abuse is a higher priority than reducing the threat of litigation.

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"I'm Not White": Anti-Racist Teacher Education for White Early Childhood Educators

Tara Goldstein. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood (Volume 2, Number 1), 2001.

Conceptualising and implementing early childhood teacher education for racial and cultural diversity is a complex task that involves learning about social stratification and race, acknowledging the privileges associated with whiteness, and finding ways to create positive racial teaching identities. This article discusses three ways that teacher educators might prepare white early childhood education students for anti-racist work in their classrooms.

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'Think Globally, Act Locally'? Climate Change and Public Participation in Manchester and Frankfurt

D. Shelton. American Journal of International Law, 88 (4), 1994.

'Think Globally, Act Locally' was one of the most famous slogans of the 1970s environmental movement. Discourses about global climate change are now a vivid illustration of this "global thinking." Although there is a substantial amount of research about global environmental issues and policy initiatives, there is still a gap in understanding of how lay publics actually comprehend global climate change. Using qualitative research method, this study is a comparison of how lay publics in Frankfurt (Germany) and Manchester (UK) perceive these issues and the possible solutions.

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24 CFR Subtitle A

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 2003.

Document from the Office of the Secretary, Housing and Urban Development, detailing the requirements for citizen participation in the use of funds from the government towards Housing and Urban Development directives.

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A Brief Critique of Deliberative Democracy: Why It's Undesirable and How to Limit It

Marcus Alexander.

The author's purpose is to outline a basic critique of deliberative democracy in response to Jon Elster's article "The Market and the Forum: Three Varieties of Political Theory," and Joshua Cohen's article "Deliberation and Democratic Legitimacy." The author's main argument is that deliberative democracy fails to overcome (or supplement) the shortcomings of the Schumpeterian minimalist conception of democracy for two important reasons: (1) its demand for reason and, therefore, its demand for both individual and collective rationality; and (2) its assumption of existence of a common good and the possibility of technical solutions and progress.

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A Citizen-Centric Internet: Why Candidate, Advocacy Group and Other Political Sites Fail, and What They Can Do About It

Scott Reents and Thomas Hill.

"The election year 2000," according to the authors, writing before the year 2000, "will be the year that the Internet shakes up politics." The authors estimated that the number of people going online for election information in 2000 would reach 35 million--more than three times the number who did the same in 1998 (source: Pew Research). The way in which political organizations respond to this massive demand will have lasting implications on their ability to function effectively.

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A Citizens' Jury Study of National Park Management

RF James and RK Blamey.

This report provides information regarding the first of two citizens' juries conducted under this project, the 'Citizens' Juries for Environmental Management: An Alternative to CBA?', funded by the Land and Water Resources Research and Development Corporation (LWRRDC). The details of establishment and operation of the jury and the content and outcomes of the jury's deliberations are provided.

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A Community Guide to Protecting Indigenous Knowledge

Simon Brascoupé and Howard Mann. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2001.

This guide is aimed at a community-level, to protecting Indigenous Knowledge. The article is situated within the context of how Canadian aboriginal people can control and protect their access to IK. The article indicates that: Some communities do not know what traditional knowledge they possess, many communities do not know how to go about identifying and protecting it, and there are few national and international laws that help Aboriginal communities preserve and protect their knowledge in a way that reflects their traditions and customs.

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A Dialogue on Foreign Policy: Report to Canadians

Department of Foreign Affairs, Canada, 2003.

The future of Canada's foreign policy lies in building on distinctive advantages in a time of great change and uncertainty. A diverse population makes them a microcosm of the world's peoples; their geography and population give them broad global interests; their economy is the most trade-oriented among the G7 nations; and their relationship with the United States is extensive and deep. With these and other assets, Canadians recognize that they have a unique basis for asserting a distinctive presence in the world. They also believe that in these times of enormous change, Canada must take stock of how they want to approach new and continuing international challenges. To represent the values, interests and aspirations of Canadians as they confront these challenges, their country's foreign policy must draw as broadly as possible on the views of our citizens.

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A Framework for Deliberation Dialogues

David Hitchcock, Peter McBurney, and Simon Parsons.

Deliberation dialogues involve reasoning about the appropriate course or courses of action for a group to undertake. According to the authors, no models currently exist for the conduct of such dialogues. Beginning with an analysis of the differences between deliberations and other types of dialogue (such as negotiations or information-seeking dialogues), the authors propose a generic framework in which to develop such models. The authors then consider various instantiations of?their generic deliberation framework so as to illustrate its applicability.

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A Green Grassroots Revolution

Bill McAuliffe. Minneapolis-St. Paul Star Tribune, April 22, 2007.

Nan Skelton at the University of Minnesota brought this article to our attention, which she says is a great local story that shows the Mayors in St. Paul and Minneapolis beginning to make the paradigm shift to a culture of citizen-government partnership. The subtitle of this article is "It's called global warming, but cities and towns, including the Twin Cities, are waging the war."

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A Guide to Participatory Budgeting

Brian Wampler.

Participatory Budgeting (PB) programs are innovative policymaking processes. Citizens are directly involved in making policy decisions. Forums are held throughout the year so that citizens have the opportunity to allocate resources, prioritize broad social policies, and monitor public spending. These programs are designed incorporate citizens into the policymaking process, spur administrative reform, and distribute public resources to low-income neighborhoods. Download the 32-page guide directly from the NCDD website.

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A Model for Deliberation, Action, and Introspection

Jon Doyle.

This thesis investigates the problem of controlling or directing the reasoning and actions of a computer program. The basic approach explored is to view reasoning as a species of action, so that a program might apply its reasoning powers to the task of deciding what inferences to make as well as deciding what other actions to take. A design for the architecture of reasoning programs is proposed. This architecture involves self-consciousness, intentional actions, deliberate adaptations, and a form of decision-making based on dialectical argumentation.

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A New Approach to Risk Evaluation and Management: Risk-Based Precaution-Based, and Discourse-Based Strategies

Andreas Klinke and Ortwin Renn. Risk Analysis 22(6): 1071-1094, 2002.

This paper considers the three approaches to risk regulation: risk-based standards (reduction to below numerically quantified levels); precautionary-based standards (reduction of risk to as low as reasonably practicable); and discourse-based standards (reduction of risk to levels determined through deliberative processes). The authors support the need for deliberative processes in all three risk management approaches and identify the need for further development of social criteria in risk assessment approaches.

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A Planning Tool for Thinking About the Future of the Public Service

Clerk of the Privy Council, 1996.

This document describes the process and the results of the Task Force commissioned by the Clerk of the Privy Council in August 1995. The Task Force used scenario building methodology to look at the future. This process, pioneered by the Royal Dutch Shell Group of companies in the early 1970's and increasingly used by the private and public sectors around the world, is essentially a method of encouraging and facilitating strategic thinking, planning, and dialogue.

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A Report on CPRN?’s Community Forum: "Integrating Citizens' Voices into Policy Discourse"

Sandra Zagon. Canadian Policy Research Networks.

CPRN's Public Involvement Network hosted a community forum at a 2003 IAP2 conference. 33 delegates from Canada, Mexico and the U.S. heard from CPRN presenters the lessons of CPRN's growing experience in the practice of public dialogues. The Community Forums, which were part of the May 2003 IAP2 conference program, gave CPRN an excellent opportunity to share some of these lessons with over 30 public participation practitioners who were delegates at the Conference. CPRN's Community Forum took place on May 21, 2003, from 1:30 to 5:00 p.m.

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A Report on the Workshop on Evaluation of Public Involvement Activities

Canadian Policy Research Networks. Ottawa, Ontario, 2003.

The purpose of the workshop was to learn more about evaluating public involvement activities and programs. About 20 representatives from the private sector, six federal government departments and four non-governmental organizations presented a diverse perspective of views.

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A Seat at the Table: Membership in Federal Advisory Committees Evaluating Public Policy in Genetics

Caterine F. Ard and Marvin R. Natowicz. American Journal of Public Health, 91 (5), 787, 2001.

This study examined who participates in federal government advisory committees regarding public policy in human and medical genetics, what parties they represent, and to what extent the general public is meaningfully represented.

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A Selected Study of the Benefits of Dialogue in Small Groups and Implications for Symbolic Dialogue in Larger Groups

John I. Spady, Forum Foundation.

The purpose of this study is to examine the benefits of the use of dialogue as a strategy for the successful functioning of small groups. Using the methodology of grounded theory, literature published between the years 1990 and 2000 are examined and interpreted. Conclusions list the benefits of dialogue attributed to small groups and relate ways to scale them to larger groups using the technique of symbolic dialogue as defined by Spady and Bell (1998).

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A Simple, Open, Scalable and Distributed Platform for Public Discourse

Thomas F. Gordon, Fraunhofer FOKUS.

There is some current debate about the relationships between e-democracy, e-government and, more recently, e-governance. The most widely accepted view, and the view the authors accept for the purposes of this paper, is that e-democracy is a subfield of e-government. One of the main issues in the field of e-democracy, and one that the authors discuss in this paper, is how to best use information and communications technology to facilitate public consultation, deliberation, participation or 'engagement' in policy-making processes such as urban planning.

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