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Racial identity development

Ethnic identity: The Transformation of White America
Artwork designed to foster dialogue.

Artwork that reflects and fosters dialogue about diversity issues. ?2002 by Elana Stanger.

Alba, R. D. 1990. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Ethnic identity: Formation and Transmission among Hispanics and other Minorities

Bernal, M. E., & Knight, G. P., Eds. 1993. Albany, NY: SUNY.

Racial identity and human development

Branch, C. 1999. In R. H. Sheets & E. R. Hollins (Eds.), Racial and ethnic identity in school practices: Aspects of human development (pp. 7-28). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

The Influence of Race and Racial Identity in Psychotherapy: Toward a racially inclusive model

Carter, R. T. 1995. New York: John Wiley.

What Are You?: Voices of Mixed Race Young People

Gaskins, Pearl Fuyo, Ed. 1999. Henry Holt & Company, Inc.

In essay, interview, and poetry, 45 mixed-race young people between the ages of 14 and 26, from all over the U.S., speak about their growing up. Whether black and white, white and Asian, Hispanic and black, Jewish and black, or whatever, each one is intensely personal; yet each one speaks to universals of coming-of-age as an outsider who doesn't fit into accepted categories.

Promoting Diversity and Social Justice

Goodman, Diane J. 2000. Sage Publications. State University of New York, New Paltz.

One America Indivisible: A National Conversation on American Pluralism and Identity

Hackney, Sheldon. 1998. National Endowment for the Humanities.

?Racial Identity Development: Understanding Racial Dynamics in College Classrooms and on Campus?

Hardiman, Rita and Bailey W. Jackson. 1992. In Promoting Diversity in College Classrooms: Innovative Responses for the Curriculum, Faculty, and Institutions.

White Racial Identity Development

Hardiman, Rita. 1994. In E.P. Sallett & D.R. Kaslow (Eds.) Race, Ethnicity and Self: Identity in Multicultural Perspective (pp. 117-140). Washington, DC: National Multicultural Institute.

Black and White Racial Identity: Theory, Research and Practice

Helms, J. E. 1990. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

An Update of Helm's White and People of Color Racial Identity Models

Helms, J.E. 1995. In Multicultural Counseling, pp. 181-198. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

White Racial Identity and Anti-Racist Education: A Catalyst for Change

Lawrence, Sandra M. and Tatum, Beverly Daniel. 1999. In E. Lee, D. Menkart and M. Okazawa-Rey (Eds) Beyond Heroes and Holidays: A Practical Guide to K-12 Anti-Racist, Multicultural Education and Staff Development, pp. 45-51. Washington, DC: Network of Educators on the Americas.

This article stems from the belief that anti-racist pedagogy based on the principles of racial identity development can bring about changes in teachers' fundamental beliefs about race and racism. Includes the results of their efforts to assess the impact of multicultural and anti-racist courses. Available from NECA, PO Box 73038, Washington, DC 20056-3038; email: .

Researching, Writing and Racial Identity: Cross-Disciplinary Connections for Multicultural Education

Lawrence, Sandra M. 1998. The Teacher Educator, 34(1), pp. 41-53.

Beyond Race Awareness: White Racial Identity and Multicultural Teaching

Lawrence, Sandra M. 1997 The Journal of Teacher Education, 48(2), pp.108-117.

White identity Formation: A Developmental Process

Richardson, T. Q., & Silvestri, T. J. 1999. In R. H. Sheets & E. R. Hollins (Eds.), Racial and Ethnic Identity in School Practices: Aspects of Human Development (pp. 49-66). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

The Biracial Baby Boom: Challenging Constructions of Racial Identity in the Twenty-First Century

Root, M. P. P. 1999. In R. H. Sheets & E. R. Hollins (Eds.), Racial, Ethnic, and Cultural Identity and Human Development: Implications for Schooling (pp. 67-90). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

?Ethnic Identity Development: Toward the Development of a Theory Within the Context of Majority/Minority Status?

Smith, Elsie J. 1991. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70(5), 181-188.

Racial Identity Development and Relational Theory: The Case of Black Women in White Communities

Tatum, Beverly Daniel. 1993. Work in Progress #63. Wellesley, MA: Stone Center Working Paper Series.

Talking About Race, Learning About Racism: The Implication of Racial Identity Development Theory in the Classroom

Tatum, Beverly Daniel. 1992. Harvard Educational Review, 62(1), 1-24.

African-American Identity Development, Academic Achievement and Missing History

Tatum, Beverly Daniel. 1992. Social Education, 56, (6), 331-334.

Talking About Race, Learning About Racism: The Implication of Racial Identity Development Theory in the Classroom

Tatum, Beverly Daniel. 1992. Harvard Educational Review, 62(1), 1-24.

Whiteness and white privilege

Beyond the Whiteness of Whiteness: Memoir of a White Mother of Black Sons

Lazarre, Jane. 1997. Duke University Press.

A heartfelt exploration of ethnicity and its implications in America. Lazarre spent twenty-five years living in a Black American family, married to an African-American man, birthing and raising two sons. One of her sons tells her ?I am Black. I have a white mother but I am not 'biracial.' That term is meaningless to me.? Her book is a memoir of coming to terms with this painful truth, of learning to look into the nature of whiteness in a way that passionately informs the connections between herself and her family.

The Cost of Whiteness

Thandeka. In Tikkun, a Bimonthly Jewish Critique of Politics, Culture & Society, Vol. 14, No. 3 (May/June 1999).

Excellent article begins: ?Most white Americans believe they were born white. Yet their own stories of early racial experiences describe persons who were bred white. Which is it--nature or nurture? Neither. The social process that creates whites produces persons who must think of their whiteness as a biological fact.? At

Critical White Studies: Looking Behind the Mirror

Delgado R., & Stefancic, J., Eds. 1997. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

The Education of a WASP

Stalvey, L.M. 1988. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Feeling and Dealing: Teaching White Students about Racial Privilege

Lawrence, Sandra M. & Bunche, T. 1996. Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, 12(5), pp.531-542.

How the Irish Became White

Ignatiev, N. 1995. New York: Routledge.

How Jews Became White folks and What that Says About Race in America

Brodkin, K. 1998. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

The Invention of the White Race

Allen, Theodore W. 1994. Vol. 1: Racial Oppression and Social Control. New York, NY: Verson.

Making Meaning of Whiteness: Exploring the Racial Identity of White Teachers

McIntyre, A. 1997. Albany, NY: SUNY.

Mexican-Americans and Whiteness

Martinez, G. A. 1997. In R. Delgado & J. Stefancic (Eds.), Critical White studies: Looking behind the mirror (pp. 210-213). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Open Minds to Equality: a Sourcebook of Learning Activities to Affirm Diversity and Promote Equity, 2nd ed.

Schniedewind, N., and E. Davidson. 1997. Boston, MA: Alyn & Bacon.

The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: How White People Profit from Identity Politics

Lipsitz, G. 1998. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Race & Manifest Destiny: Origins of American Racial Anglo-Saxonism

Horsman, Reginald. 1986. Harvard University Press.

The Study of Whiteness

Rodriguez, R. 1999. Black Issues in Higher Education, 16(6), 20-25.

Understanding Whiteness/Unraveling Racism: Tools for the Journey

Helfand, Judy and Laurie B. Lippin, Ph.D. 2001. Thomson Learning Custom Publishing.

This book makes whiteness and white privilege visible, revealing the cultural and institutional structures that keep white dominance in place. Both a workbook and reader, it provides tools for examining what it is to be white in the U.S., addressing fear and guilt as barriers to dismantling racism and identifying the small daily acts and larger organized movements that further the struggle for social justice and equality.

Unveiling Positions of Privilege: A Hands-On Approach to Understanding Racism

Lawrence, Sandra M. 1998. Teaching of Psychology, 25(3), pp. 198-200.

The Wages of Whiteness

Roediger, D. R. 1991. Race and the Making of the American Working Class. London: Verso.

What Should White Women Do?

Mahoney, M. R. 1997. In R. Delgado & J. Stefancic (Eds.), Critical White studies: Looking Behind the Mirror (pp. 642-643). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

When We Talk Among Ourselves: White-on-White Focus Groups Discuss Race Relations

Hitchcock, Jeff. 1995.

Go to to examine this extensive 1995 report written by the director of the Center for the Study of White American Culture.

White Lies: Race and the Myths of Whiteness

Berger, Maurice. 1999. Farrar Straus & Giroux.

?White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences Through Work in Women's Studies?

McIntosh, Peggy. 1995. Margaret Anderson and Patricia Hill Collins, Eds. Race, Class and Gender: An Anthology, 2nd edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

?White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack?

McIntosh, Peggy. Peace and Freedom. July/August 1989, 10-12.

White Reign: Deploying Whiteness in America

Kincheloe, J. L., Steinberg, S. R., Rodriguez, N. M., & Chennault, R. E. (Eds.). 1998. New York: St. Martin's Press.

White Women, Race Matters: The Social Construction of Whiteness

Frankenberg, Ruth. 1993. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Whites Confront Racism: Antiracists and Their Paths to Action

O'Brien, Eileen. 2001. Rowman & Littlefield.

Examines the distinctive place that whites can take in the fight for racial justice, bringing together interviews with white anti-racist activists from across North America. Avoiding the typical white options of being ?non-racist? or feeling guilty, these whites demonstrate the multitude of ways whites can be proactive in combating modern racism.


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