D&D Models & Techniques
Special thanks go to Steve Pyser of the University of Phoenix, Philadelphia campus, for helping to gather the information on these pages.
Click on the following links for detailed descriptions of these leading dialogue and deliberation models. Included whenever possible are details about what circumstances the models are best suited for, info about the organizations and networks affiliated with the model, and resources recommended for further learning.
- AmericaSpeaks' 21st Century Town Meeting
- Appreciative Inquiry
- Citizen Juries
- Civic Reflection - NEW!
- Compassionate Listening
- Conversation Caf?
- Cooperative Inquiry
- Deliberative Polling
- Dynamic Facilitation
- Forums Institute Policy Forums
- INTEGRA: A Model of Intentional Creative Dialogue & Negotiation
- National Issues Forums
- Nonviolent Communication
- Open Space Technology
- Public Conversations Project
- Socrates Caf?
- Study Circles
- Sustained Dialogue
- The Understanding Process
- Victim-Offender Mediation (VOM) - NEW!
- Web Lab's Small Group Dialogue
- Wisdom Council
- World Cafe
Interested in seeing another model listed here?
We plan to expand on this feature in the coming months. If you would like to have your model listed here, please send your responses to the following five questions to . You may submit your description in another format if necessary. Please note that your submission should be three to five Word pages long, at a minimum.
- How would you describe your model to a practitioner who is already aware of a number of dialogue & deliberation models?
- Under what kinds of circumstances is your model most successful or appropriate? (Examples: with groups that are already in conflict; when public officials need the informed citizen opinion on an issue, etc.)
- Is the model affiliated with a specific organization or network? If so, tell us about the organization or network and its relationship with the model.
- What are some of the best resources available if folks want to learn more about the model? Include both books and web links if possible.
- How should we reference this information? Should we include a specific writer's name and their contact information, or just acknowledge that this info came from your organization? Tell us what you'd prefer?
Other compilations of group processes can be found at?
A free resource of principles and strategies to enhance meaningful stakeholder involvement in decision-making. Possibly the most comprehensive list of group and community processes available online. Includes over 60 detailed process descriptions, with references. Also offers guiding principles and a few case studies.
The Co-Intelligence Institute
Tom Atlee's list of over 50 processes used to build a group's collective intelligence. Tom's Innovations in Democracy Project (www.democracyinnnovations.org) is another good resource - it's an alphabetical annotated list of over 100 democratic innovations, books, organizations, and group and community processes, each with a link.
The Co-Intelligence Institute
Alphabetical annotated list of over 100 democratic innovations, books, organizations, and group and community processes, each with a link.
Global Development Network
Participatory Environmental Policy Processes: Experiences from North and South
This study by Tim Holmes and Ian Scoones describes 19 Deliberative Inclusionary Processes (DIPs) around the world and how power relations and institutional contexts critically affect their outcomes. Includes 35 case studies.
Teledemocracy Action News+Network
TANN provides descriptions of and contact information for ten methodologies: Citizens Juries/Policy Juries, Australian Policy Juries in Local Government, Televote: Scientific/Informed/Deliberated Public Opinion, The Honolulu City Council Electronic Hearing, Americans Talk Issues, The Center for Deliberative Polling, Public Agenda Foundation, Die Pflanungszelle, Institute for Public Policy Research, and The Danish Board of Technology.